It is derived from muhammad which means 'praiseworthy' ; hamida 'to praise, to commend, to thank'. Medina was a large flourishing agricultural settlement, while Mecca was an important financial center for many surrounding tribes. [10], In May 2006, it was reported that statistics indicate that some 8,928 Danish Muslims carry the name Muhammad and that in 2004 alone, 167 new-born babies were registered. Synonyms: 1.Timeline: 1. muhammad Ali's showmanship in the ring shouldn't detract from his considerable skill: 2. muhammad was too old for the draft: 3. John Henry Haaren, Addison B. Poland (1904), p. 83, The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad (2010), p. 35, Nemoy, "Barakat Ahmad's "Muhammad and the Jews", p. 325. A Meccan force was sent to protect the caravan and went on to confront the Muslims upon receiving word that the caravan was safe. [276] In the Persian lands, this tradition of realistic depictions lasted through the Timurid dynasty until the Safavids took power in the early 16th century. However, its actual pronunciation differs colloquially, for example, in Egyptian Arabic: IPA: [mæˈħæmːæd], while in exclusively religious contexts, talking about Islam: IPA: [moˈħæmːæd]. [275] The Safavaids, who made Shi'i Islam the state religion, initiated a departure from the traditional Ilkhanid and Timurid artistic style by covering Muhammad's face with a veil to obscure his features and at the same time represent his luminous essence. The Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs, Cairo, Egypt and University of Chicago. At the heart, this is what Islam is about. When God took him unto Him, there was scarcely twenty white hairs in his head and beard. Although the Meccan forces were swayed by suggestions that Muhammad was sure to be overwhelmed, they desired reassurance in case the confederacy was unable to destroy him. "[208] Bernard Lewis says there are two important political traditions in Islam—Muhammad as a statesman in Medina, and Muhammad as a rebel in Mecca. Buhl, F.; Welch, A.T. (1993). [16], Among the first things Muhammad did to ease the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was to draft a document known as the Constitution of Medina, "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca; this specified rights and duties of all citizens, and the relationship of the different communities in Medina (including the Muslim community to other communities, specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book"). [158], Many Muslims were not satisfied with the treaty. News of Uthman's safety allowed for negotiations to continue, and a treaty scheduled to last ten years was eventually signed between the Muslims and Quraysh. In the legal group, traditions could have been subject to invention while historic events, aside from exceptional cases, may have been only subject to "tendential shaping". In the space of ten years he took twelve or thirteen wives and had several concubines: even the faithful were scandalized, and the prophet had to resort to alleged special revelations from God to justify his conduct. [28][29] However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". [107] The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims, especially after the Battle of Bu'ath in which all clans were involved, made it obvious to them that the tribal concept of blood-feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless there was one man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases. Muslims believe it represents the words of God revealed by the archangel Gabriel to Muhammad. Muhammad then visited Ta'if, another important city in Arabia, and tried to find a protector, but his effort failed and further brought him into physical danger. [275][278][279] Later images were produced in Ottoman Turkey and elsewhere, but mosques were never decorated with images of Muhammad. The pre-Islamic Middle East was dominated by the Byzantine and Sassanian empires. [247] Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son named Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, but the child died when he was two years old. Definition of muhammad noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. God sent him (as a Messenger) when he was forty years old. Husayn, M.J. During the twenty-five years of his union with Ḥadijah Muhammad had no other wife; but scarcely two months had elapsed after her death (619) when he married Sauda, the widow of Sakran, who, with her husband, had become an early convert to Islam and who was one of the emigrants to Abyssinia. 5). [246] Some Shi'a scholars contend that Fatimah was Muhammad's only daughter. The rest of their property was claimed by Muhammad in the name of God as it was not gained with bloodshed. Mohammed was the predominant form from then until the 1940s, when it was overtaken by Muhammad, which has been predominant ever since.Other forms which are now quite common are Mohammad, … [7] According to Islamic historian William Montgomery Watt there was a general disregard by guardians in taking care of weaker members of the tribes in Mecca during the 6th century, "Muhammad's guardians saw that he did not starve to death, but it was hard for them to do more for him, especially as the fortunes of the clan of Hashim seem to have been declining at that time. [218] Another description of Muhammad was provided by Umm Ma'bad, a woman he met on his journey to Medina:[220][221]. [16] Henri de Boulainvilliers, in his Vie de Mahomed which was published posthumously in 1730, described Muhammad as a gifted political leader and a just lawmaker. [171] Some of these were later pardoned. [16][178], He also ordered the destruction of any remaining pagan idols in Eastern Arabia. When silent, he was grave and dignified, and when he spoke, glory rose up and overcame him. [248], Zayd ibn Haritha was a slave that Muhammad bought, freed, and then adopted as his son. These accounts agree that Meccan persecution played a major role in Muhammad's decision to suggest that a number of his followers seek refuge among the Christians in Abyssinia. [5], It is sometimes reported that Muhammad is the most popular boy’s name in all of Britain; however, this is based on combining multiple spelling variations such as Mohammed, but not combining spelling variants of popular British names such as Ollie and Olly. [158] According to Watt, although Muhammad's decision to make the pilgrimage was based on his dream, he was also demonstrating to the pagan Meccans that Islam did not threaten the prestige of the sanctuaries, that Islam was an Arabian religion. When they justified themselves by referring to the Bible, Muhammad, who had taken nothing therefrom at first hand, accused them of intentionally concealing its true meaning or of entirely misunderstanding it, and taunted them with being "asses who carry books" (sura lxii. 916–18. They decided to ask the next man who comes through the gate to make that decision; that man was the 35-year-old Muhammad. According to this account—initially mentioned by Al-Waqidi then rehashed by Ibn Sa'ad and Tabari, but not by Ibn Hisham and not by Ibn Ishaq[88]—Muhammad, desperately hoping for an accommodation with his tribe, pronounced a verse acknowledging the existence of three Meccan goddesses considered to be the daughters of Allah. Afterwards he resided in Mecca for ten years and in Medina for ten more years. After migration to Medina, Muhammad, who was then in his fifties, married several more women. Muslims have traditionally expressed love and veneration for Muhammad. STARTS/ENDS WITH Mu-, -ad [112], Following the emigration, the people of Mecca seized property of Muslim emigrants to Medina. Muslims regard him as God's messenger through whom the Koran was revealed. "[291] After quoting Heinrich Heine, who said in a letter to some friend that "I must admit that you, great prophet of Mecca, are the greatest poet and that your Quran... will not easily escape my memory", John Tolan goes on to show how Jews in Europe in particular held more nuanced views about Muhammad and Islam, being an ethnoreligious minority feeling discriminated, they specifically lauded Al-Andalus, and thus, "writing about Islam was for Jews a way of indulging in a fantasy world, far from the persecution and pogroms of nineteenth-century Europe, where Jews could live in harmony with their non-Jewish neighbors. When they discovered that Muhammad lived, the Meccans did not return due to false information about new forces coming to his aid. He gained support from the nomadic tribes to the north and east of Medina; using propaganda about Muhammad's weakness, promises of booty, memories of Quraysh prestige and through bribery. 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