We are to be nicer, fairer, and more respectful of others than of ourselves. But because of his radical ideas, he was never given the opportunity. The dealings of my trade were but a drop of water in the comprehensive ocean of my business” (p. 30). But these forward-looking theorists worked such piecemeal views into pluralist, hybrid, or eclectic theoretical forms. And that is quite a drawback for a moral guideline, if the rule is an action guideline. scholar, Freedman makes an effort to establish what information is believed to be fact and what is more likely legend. The golden-rule’s distinctness, here, is seen relative to its origins. The golden rule enjoys the reputation of enduring wisdom, even if its lack of conceptual sophistication leaves philosophers cold. But the golden rule falls short: it is truly a rule, not a principle. But more important, the rule is vastly more detailed and institutionalized here than it seems because of its guidance by established practices, conventions, and understandings. Likely the rule was designed for such audiences. Reviewed in the United States on September 1, 2008. But this account provides neither a good explanation nor understanding of the rule as a whole, or in any element, relative to the rule’s distinct meaning for its users or benefactors, nor its distinctive application in any real-life situation. And these can be combined. Being in that perspective would moot an attempt to “feel with” it from another (Noddings 1984, Hoffman 1987). Often we fail to recognize that extreme reductionism is the centerpiece of the mainstream general theory project. Why is showing favoritism toward our favorites a problem? Confucius wanted through his teachings for people to enter back into the era of the golden age which took place long ago under the original ideal mythical emperors (Corduan, 2012). It is not clear that generalizing self-love captures appropriate other-love. Universalization reveals how the basically sound rationale of the golden rule can go unexpectedly awry at full tilt. “Business? This excellence of character, creates harmony in the home. The main attitude observed is “yea-saying” toward everything, reminiscent of Christian calls for “saying yes” to God and “to all who ask of ye” (Lect. What neighbor would strike or steal from you (taking our cloak so that you must give him your coat also (Matthew 5:40)? This is what the Kantian veil of ignorance or Rawlsian (1972) original position or Habermasian (1990) ideal speech rubric is for. But despite appearance, the golden rule does not ask it of us. (This said, the irony should not be lost here of critics setting the rule up to fail by over-generalizing its intended scope and standards for success.). They are clarifications of the rule that expose misconceptions, central to its long-standing reputation. This might be thought to raise a serious question for altruism—the benefiting of others at our expense. Social norms are internalized and habituated in action, even to the point of what we call character traits. The renowned Golden Rule — ”Do unto others as you would have others do unto you” — originated with Confucius more than 2,500 years ago. In this form, its application is guided by hosts of assumptions, expectations, traditions, and religious obligations, recognized like-mindedly by “the tribe.” This helps solve the ambiguity problem of how to apply the rule within different roles: parents dealing with children, supervisors with rank-and-file employees, and the like. The wording above is from the King James Bible, Matthew 7:12, however Hindu, Jewish, Buddhist, Confucian, and Zoroastrian versions of it appeared 3,000-500 years earlier. Best Selling in Nonfiction. We can scoff at the obtuseness of these renderings, but even sophisticates may know less about others’ perspectives than they typically assume. Philosophical treatments of the golden rule itself come next, with an evaluation of their alternative top-down approach. A chapter is always devoted to ancient “virtue ethics” in these volumes despite no one apparently knowing how to apply moral traits or character to anything concrete, in any concrete way. Self-interest has been rehabilitated in philosophical ethics, along with happiness as satisfying interests, not necessarily matching ethereal ideals or god’s will. Though we might wish to be treated ideally, we might not wish, or feel able to reciprocate in kind. In principle, when we raise our spoon filled with breakfast cereal at the morning table, the matter of whose mouth it goes into is in question. who cared more about this present life, history, and government than deities and the afterlife (Corduan, 2012; Morgan, 2012). Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. If they are, their stability and supposed resistance to situational factors of morality appears remarkably weak (Kohlberg 1982a, Myers, chs. There are nice and not so nice ways to make this point.  The self-other gap is transcended. When agapeistic morality puts our very nature on the spot, bidding us to recast basic motivations to suit—when it sets us in lifetime struggle against ourselves—it fails to acknowledge morality as our tool, not primarily our taskmaster.  These considerations provide the needed boundary line to situate the golden rule this side of a feasibility-idealism divide. These are quite different orientations, setting different generalizable expectations in oneself and in others. Instead of revealing a flaw in the rule’s logic, it may show implicit features of a concept or phenomenon being ignored. Moreover, this corollary may not sanction an actual comeuppance of offenders, in violation of golden-rule spirit, functioning instead as a threat or gentle reminder of joint expectations.  Thus the rules of thumb discussed by Mill in his Utilitarianism were quickly deserted by philosophers for rule-utilitarianism.  “I have always thought of Christmas…as a kind, forgiving charitable and pleasant time when men and women seem, by one consent, to open their shut-up hearts freely and to think of people below them as if they really were fellow-passengers to the grave, not another race of creatures bound on other journeys” (p. 9).What speech more heartily hits the golden tones of the golden rule? Confucius: The Creator of the Golden Rule ( 16 ) IMDb 6.1 1h 29min 2016 ALL He was a sage, philosopher and teacher who, with Socrates and Buddha, lived at an extraordinary time in the evolution of human civilization. This is a strongly egalitarian message. This rule of conduct is a summary of the Christian’s duty to his neighbour and states a fundamental ethical principle. When considering a prominent view late in its history, its paths of development also merit analysis. These components would be given a context of use and interrelated in crucially different ways, with suggestions for interrelating them further. And in such contexts requiring extraordinarily helpful motivations and actions from others would be seen as unfair. The rule, Kung-shu, came full-blown from the very lips and writings of the “morality giver” and in seemingly universal form. Yahshua’s command is for us to actively look for ways to do good to others. There is no need for them to engage their character and its traits, for example. There is one area where the golden rule extends too far, directly into the path of a turning of the other cheek. The whole process is typically done by oneself, within one’s self-perspective or ego, and it can be spun as one wishes, no checks involved. This shows a hidden chink in its armor. Thus any empathy involved would involve imaginatively “feeling with” myself, at a future time, recipient of another’s similar action. This is almost exactly like the form of the Golden Rule found in Christianity. (Can we learn to love others as ourselves over a lifetime?) As for Judaism, we can read the Golden Rule for the first time in the Book of Tobias, dated 200 BC, but Jesus Christ has turned it into a positive sentence: “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”. This conceives ethical theory on the model of scientific theory, especially a physical theory with its laws of nature. Confucius was a man born around 550 B.C. According to Simon Blackburn, the Golden Rule "can be found in some form in almost every ethical tradition". And failing to provide a type of general explanation might not then be a failing. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Gr. In psychology, by contrast, it has been identified with self-esteem and locus of control. Like most key tenets of ethics, the golden rule shows two major sides: one promoting fairness and individual entitlement, conceived as reciprocity; the other promoting helpfulness and generosity to the end of social welfare. For the golden rule to have become so pervasive across historical epochs and cultures suggests a growing suspicion of class and ethnic distinctions—challenging ethnocentrism. For the general theory project, this one-sidedness is purposeful, a research tool for reductive explanation. It stresses loving identification with others while the golden rule merely advises equal treatment. In the “Hi-king”, Confucius is recorded as saying: “Filial piety is the root of all virtue. From this consent logic we move toward Kantian or social contract versions of mutual respect and a sort of rational expectation that can be widely generalized. Gandhi and King have forwarded a view of loving non-violence that doesn’t even allow self-defense because it involves the preference of self over other. (See Colby and Damon 1984, Oliner and Oliner 1988, The Noetics Institute “Creative Altruist” Profiles). The Golden Rule appears, as I mentioned before, in three of the Four Books, in-cluding the Analects. Among the oldest golden rule quotes we can find those from the philosopher Confucius, who lived in China between the sixth and fifth century BC. Ages 8-12. “If I were you, do you know what I would do in that situation?” Decades of research suggests that these are the interpretations most of us develop spontaneously as we are trying to figure out the golden rule and the place of its rationale in more reasoning over childhood and adolescence (Kohlberg 1982). Frequent brief quotations from The Analects lend immediacy to the story and help obscure the biographical lacunae. It can be as spiritual and abstract an activity as concentrated rational intuition ever-intent on an imagined Platonic form of good, which presumably would direct one’s perception of every reflection of the Form, in every ethical matter one dealt with in life. Before a rule like the golden one is either slighted or acknowledged, moral philosophy should consider innovative approaches to conceiving such rules, their fitness to current practice, and perhaps what we can learn from converting the rule to a programmable algorithm for autonomous agent programming.  Certainly in religion this is what is meant by terming someone holy or a living saint. It routinely violates the basic structure of human embodiment, the laws of human motivation, and the principles of rational choice of behavior based on them, as depicted above. Virtue ethics (habits) and deliberation ethics (normative ethics) fall here. Exemplifying fairness in this way also shows demonstrates putting the person first, holding his status paramount relative to his actions, and our sense of offense. We accept this discretionary arrangement in many everyday settings. Culturally, the golden rule rationale is mostly confined to certain strands of the Judeo-Christian and Chinese traditions, which are broad and lasting, at least until recently, but hardly universal (See Wattles 1966). But if I then was legitimately expected to reciprocate out of consistency, I might consent, agree, or acquiesce only in mutual respect or minimal fairness, at most. Confucius quotes golden rule. But at some point they move to considerations that serve distinctly theoretical and intellectual purposes, removed from everyday thinking and choice. America's premier biographer for young people illuminates the remarkable life and far-reaching influence of the famous Chinese philosopher. Politics, education, spirituality: the philosopher has something to say in all these areas, and Freedman compellingly conveys the profundity of his thoughts. Giraffe Heroes Project,  Box 759, Langley, Washington 98260. Something went wrong. The rule can do much more than expected, it turns out, when its far-reaching implications are made explicit. Neither is it clear, to some, that doing so would be best. These are essential moral matters, golden-rule matters, not just a matter of discretionary style. It’s not even clear how the typical moral division of labor is justified in agapeistic terms. An alternative rendering is how you prefer they treat you, singling out the want that has highest priority for you in this peculiar context of mutual reciprocity, not necessarily in general. In addition, we hear of various rules and principles advising us on how to do this. (Children in agapeistic communities are often raised by the adults as a whole, and in separate quarters from parents, primarily inhabited by peers. A true self-understanding (zhi xing "ft) or a full. To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. accomplishment of one's heart-mind (jin xin W), as a way to serve heaven. Non-Fiction "Do not impose on others what you do not wish for yourself." This was one of the guiding principles of life that Confucius taught his followers, five centuries before Jesus taught the Golden Rule with similar words. 1672 Samuel Pufendorf's On the Law of Nature and Nations (bk. If depicted as a rule’s rationale it would say, “Treat others the way they’d wish or choose.” Seemingly the best way to do that is to ask them how they’d like to be treated. In the first, one experiences satori or enlightened awakening in a sudden flash. If we can’t ask, then perhaps we are not so much doing unto them a way as guessing what they’d like. Well-known, especially to people in the Far East, is a statement by Confucius, who is venerated in the Orient as the greatest sage and teacher. Over time, through the psychology of cognitive dissonance reduction, aided by an apparent consistency process in the brain, the mind supplies the motivation needed (Festinger 1957, Van Veen, and others, 2009). Confucian followers succeeding Mencius into the neo-Confucians, however, emphasized the Kung component or ritual righteousness. Today, however, both these views are thought to be far from histori- cal fact. Alan Gewirth (1978) has proposed a rule in which we focus on mutual respect for our generic rights alone. In classic lectures, compiled as The Varieties of Religious Experience (1901/1985) William James declares the golden rule incompatible with human nature (Lect. Buy a cheap copy of Confucius: The Golden Rule book by Russell Freedman. And is there a more “Christian spirit” of charity and service available? Rationalist by nature, general theory also assumes that the structure or logic of the rationale is the thing, not its psychological function, emotive effect, or motivational power. The wrongs anyone commits do not eradicate his good deeds, nor our potential for reform. Reviewed in the United States on July 11, 2008. Their numbers seem legion. “Utilitarianism” in. What is this condition but the ultimate hold of ego over, binding us to all our attachments? The message greets most of us in childhood. In Judaism, benevolence usually meant helping family members and neighbors primarily, focusing on one’s kind—one’s particular sect. The Confucian version of the golden rule faced a more rigid Chinese clan system, outdoing the Hebrews in social-class distinctions and the sense that many lives are worthless. Hare does above, Rawls did in his hallowed A Theory of Justice (1972), calling them half-theories. Such integration problems make it unclear how to follow the golden rules properly in most circumstances. Perhaps simply “generalization” the rule, as anciently stated is not the most creative theorizing approach. It is remarkable that moral philosophy is still focused on concepts that were contemporaries of phlogiston and élan and vital, bile and humors. If one blinks, or one’s mind wanders, one would miss it, its golden gleam notwithstanding. is the easy way to get anything and everything done with the tap of your thumb. When we are a worker, we just work. It seems morally appropriate to sacrifice our own interests but not those of others even when they are willing. But of course we may not know how to love ourselves, or how to do so in the right way. ), Kohlberg, Lawrence. 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